Designing Web Sites For All Screen Resolutions

May 29, 2009 at 6:06 am (Uncategorized)

How to design a web sites for all screen resolutions

This tutorial teaches you how to design a website that utilizes the available browser space efficiently and looks good for all screen resolutions.

Why do we need to design for all resolutions?

  1. Web site design scalability – As technology advances and the configuration of monitors keep increasing it is impossible to test your site in all screen sizes. Designing stretch layouts that fit any screen resolution ensures that you know all your visitors see a visually appealing and professional site. Check out our website in different screen resolutions, you will find that it will fit the screen width.
  2. To fit available browser space for easy reading – Try out a fixed width site in all resolutions (especially higher than 1024×768) and see how empty and unprofessional it looks. Now take a look at this article page in all the resolutions and feel the difference. If it is necessary for you to keep a fixed width then we have given suggestions on how to do it more professionally (read below).
  3. To keep your viewers on your site – A site that is easy-to-use always encourages visitors to stay and read your content. For site with long pages of content this is very crucial as the amount of scrolling required is reduced. Suppose your site doesn’t look good for a particular resolution it is very probable that the visitor will close the browser window feeling that the web page is not for their viewing.

Viewer Statistics

  • There are more than 40 different screen resolutions.
  • 1024×768 is the most popular resolution used (getting the lions share of around 60%) followed by 1280×1024 and above (around 25%) and 800×600 (around 14%). 98% of users have 800×600 and above resolution, thus, 800×600 can be taken as the minimum resolution the site should fit (other lower resolution are seldom used).

Design Basics

  • There are two ways to design your website – Table design and Table-less design (using div tags).
  • For a beginner using tables is the best as there isn’t much that can go wrong with the use of tables. For advanced users and design professionals designing using CSS styles and div tags is a must for optimal results of load time and to follow W3C standards.
  • For stretch layouts we need to give the width of the table(s) or div(s) in percentage.
  • To fit the whole screen for any resolution – the outer most table(s) or div(s) are given 100% width. If the design can be made to have just one outer table then it can be given a height of 100% to expand and fill the browser space vertically.
  • To make only the content area to expand do the following. After the outer most table or div is given the width in percentage all inside cells or div tags should be given fixed widths in pixels except the content cell or div.
  • If you like the fixed width concept or are forced to have a fixed width you can give a contrasting background color and/or a shadow effect/border to the table to make it stand out. These effects can also be used along with the stretch layout concept by giving the table or div width as 90 or 95 percent.
  • Some of the templates don’t fit the screen vertically due to design limitations and netscape compatibility issues. Instead of using 100% as the height, here the extra space can be cleverly hidden by using a background color or fill.

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Fast loading Website Tips

May 29, 2009 at 5:58 am (Web Design)

10 Important Tips for a fast loading web site


It is important to have a reasonably fast loading web site so that viewers are not made to wait for a long time and to accommodate users on slow internet connections. Search engine algorithms also do take into consideration your load time.

  1. Optimize your HTML code

    Make sure that your site doesn’t have any unwanted tags or broken links and that it is optimized for load time. Errors on your web pages can slow down your website – Make sure your website is error free!

  2. Maximize content area

    This not only reduces load time, it enhances the readability of your site.

  3. Minimize use of graphics, Flash and scripts

    These are the major contributors to the size of your web page, so try minimizing them. Try using background colors and fills instead of heavy images.

  4. Optimize all heavy files

    As much as possible optimize heavy graphics, Flash files and scripts. In editors like fireworks and flash you can see the various options in the preview panel to reduce the sizes. See how popular web sites like google and yahoo have pages that are very small in size and thus load in seconds.

  5. Stick to simple designs

    Most fast loading sites have very simple designs. Take the hint! Complicated designs will slow down your pages.

  6. Spread out your content neatly

    In case you find yourself having very long pages of content, break them down into separate logical sections and thus bring down the sizes of the individual pages.

  7. Use Text Links instead of graphic buttons

    Basically try to make use of text links as much as possible as they are easier to maintain. Use CSS Styles for text links to make them as attractive as buttons. 

  8. Use Server Side Include (SSI) files

    SSI files once called from the web server reside in its cache so on subsequent requests they load faster. Use them where ever possible.

  9. Use Div tags instead of Tables

    Go in for a pure CSS tableless design right from the beginning. Using Div tags instead of tables for your design is what you need to do for better load time and total control over your layout. It also ensures that it is scalable for whenever you want to make design changes in the future. 

    Effective Table Design: In case you must use tables use them wisely and sparingly. Design using nested tables instead of using cell merges and splits. Use separate tables where ever possible. Not designing for 100% height is better as if you use just one outer table, the web page is displayed only after the table is loaded fully. If many outer tables are present [you can have different tables for the header, content, footer, etc.] the page displays the content of each table as soon as its elements are loaded.

  10. Check your W3C standard validity and Load time regularly 

    To maintain an excellent website you must give thought to how to improve your website on an almost daily basis! Maintain an error free website and tweek it regularly. Do remember to check your Load time and W3C code and CSS validity regularly.

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Every 30th Indian has a computer

May 29, 2009 at 4:33 am (News)

computerBangalore: In spite of the annual dip in growth rate of personal computers (PCs) in India, the country now boasts of one PC for every 30 of its citizens. PC shipment in India has surpassed 36 million units mark, representing a significant improvement over March 2007 when the country had boasted of one computer for every 50 Indians. 

Indian PC market has grown by seven percent in first quarter of 2009 as compared to the fourth quarter of 2008, according to IDC’s Asia/Pacific quarterly PC tracker. “Though the Year-on-Year growth rate of India Client PC shipments dropped by 19 percent (First quarter 2009 versus first quarter 2008), this is an improvement over the previous quarter, indicating that the market has perhaps already bottomed out,” said Sumanta Mukherjee, Lead Analyst, Computing Products Research, IDC India.

A total of 1.67 million units of Client PCs were shipped during the first quarter of this year. Overall PC shipments to the commercial segment were maintained by demand from the Government, Education and Banking (nationalized banks) segments. The Government sector expects some more spending to happen after the formation of a new government. “With a number of significant government-funded education and e-Governance projects lined up in the coming quarters, a lot will hinge on how quickly the new government settles down to business,” says Mukherjee.

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Corporate India loses $8 Billion in power cut

May 29, 2009 at 4:27 am (News)

Bangalore: The India Inc has suffered a loss of $8.64 billion (Rs.43, 205 crore) in the power downturn in the year 2008-2009, says a study by the Manufacturers’ Association for Information Technology (MAIT) and Emerson Network Power (India). The study was an in-depth analysis of the impact of downtime in corporate India due to high occurrence of power outages, loss incurred are scheduled and non scheduled expenses, which is just double the loss incurred in the year 2003, when it was only Rs.22, 000 crore. 

2The loss incurred is about one percent of India’s total GDP. The key reason described in the report for the loss is because of the infrastructure stress on the power utilities. There are a large number of companies which rely on the IT infrastructure for automation, productivity and business management. The employee productivity and customer management were severely impacted by such downtime. Manufacturing sector has been described as the worst affected in this downtime.

The study, which in the third round was conducted by the consulting firm M/S Feedback Business Consulting Services, covered around eight hundred cities located in seven important industrial cities in India. Sixty-two percent of the companies surveyed were found to have a complete dependability on the IT and Automation sector. Fourteen major industry verticals including manufacturing, electronics, telecom, IT services, IT enabled services, banking & finance, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, SMEs, retail, hotels, real estate, infrastructure and hospitals were surveyed and the information was obtained from the senior executives.

“Contingency planning is part of the India Inc’s mindset, based on traditional experiences with infrastructure limitations. This trend will continue in the light of global power failures encountered in Western countries. Firms will need to pay more attention to maximizing uptime if they are to remain competitive in a globally networked economy,” said Vinnie Mehta, Executive Director, MAIT 

The power disruption frequency was highest in Delhi, followed by Pune and Bangalore. Among the surveyed, 78 percent feel that the condition will improve in one year, but Delhi was at the top with the least confidence in showing up. The highest confidence level was polled for Chennai. Telecom sector was found to have the fastest restoration ability, while it was found slowest in pharma/biotech, hotels/hospitals and manufacturing. 

The downtime loss incurred across all the verticals was observed at an average of Rs. 54,434 per hour, which is highest in telecom and real estate/infrastructure companies, and lowest in the SMEs. The major impact of the downtime is on the employee productivity and customer management. The average speed of restoration was found about 71 minutes. Bangalore was adjudged with high frequency and longer outages. Mumbai continues to be most depended on grid for power. 

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Tech Mahindra wins bid for Satyam Computer

April 13, 2009 at 11:22 am (News)


Mumbai: Tech Mahindra, the IT arm of auto major Mahindra and Mahindra, Monday won the bid for India’s fourth largest software exporter Satyam Computer.

Satyam’s new board of directors, which met here to select the highest bidder, chose Tech Mahindra following its bid of Rs.1,757 crore ($351.4 million) for 31 percent stake in the scam-tainted IT giant.  

Tech Mahindra offered Rs.58 for each Satyam share.

The board will now have to inform the Company Law Board (CLB) of its selection. The CLB will will announce its approval, within a week. The new owner will take over the management only after CLB’s nod.

Engineering major Larsen and Toubro (L&T) and private-equity firm WL Ross were among the other major contenders for the Hyderabad-headquartered Satyam.

L&T already holds 12.04 percent stake in Satyam.

The six-member Satyam board is headed by Kiran Karnik, former president of the National Association of Software and Services Companies (NASSCOM) that represents the software industry.

Besides Karnik, the board comprises HDFC chairman Deepak Parekh, former Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) member C. Achuthan and Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) mentor Tarun Das. 

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Infosys fires 2,100 for poor performance

April 13, 2009 at 11:14 am (News)


Bangalore: Due to the poor performance, Infosys Technologies has given pink slips to 2,100 of its employees across the country, after an annual performance appraisal exercise concluded mid-March, reported The Times of India.

“The tolerance for non-performance has come down to zero,” said TV Mohandas Pai, Head of the company’s HR. “The appraisal was conducted for 60,000 of our employees. At the bottom, some 3.5 percent of the people were either out-placed or left the company. It is an annual scenario after every performance assessment. In fact, normally the bottom size is 5 percent,” he added. Trainees were not part of this exercise. Outplacement means off-loading excess/unwanted staff to another employer.  

Infosys currently has an employee base of 1,05,000 which includes 45,000 trainees. During quarter ending December 31, the company had a total headcount of 1,03,078. Infosys had said a quarter ago that it would hire 26,000 people during fiscal 2008-09, more than what it had projected in the beginning of the year. During the third quarter, the company made a gross addition of 5,997 with the net intake being 2,772.

Infosys has made offers to around 20,000 engineering graduates for the current year. Infosys’ earnings for 2008-09 will be out on April 15. 

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Dr. Jaya Prakash Narayan’s Message to The Nation

April 1, 2009 at 5:41 am (Lok Satta)

jayaprakash-narayanaThe task is difficult, but vital. The struggle is hard, but necessary. The risks are high,but cannot be avoided. The effort will demand all our courage, resourcefulness and endurance. We must work for such a movement with the sure knowledge that people want reform, and if we fail to translate their frustration and anger into a constructive reform movement, the nation will have to forsake peace,freedom and unity, and at least a generation or more will needlessly suffer pain, anguish and misery on a scale unprecedented in human history. If we attempt reform earnestly and design institutions wisely, the reform movement will surely succeed in a few years’ time and the Indian people will build a nation of peace,freedom and unity, a nation that will play its rightful role globally in keeping with its size, history and civilization, and will promote happiness of its citizens internally. As some one said with prescience, there is nothing more powerful than an idea whose time has come. This is the time for a holistic reform of our governance structure,to build a strong, democratic, self-governing India, with all its citizens enjoying peace, freedom and harmony. History beckons us.

Jaya Prakash Narayan

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April 1, 2009 at 5:28 am (Lok Satta)


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April 1, 2009 at 5:14 am (Lok Satta)


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Experts brace for possible computer worm attack

April 1, 2009 at 5:08 am (News)

San Francisco: Government and private security teams are in a rush to gear up for a possible attack by a computer worm that threatens to carry on disruptive activities April 1.

The Conficker worm, also known as Downadup or Kido, first appeared last November and is estimated to have infected millions of computers worldwide.

By exploiting a vulnerability in Microsoft’s Windows operating system, the worm can infect users’ computers and spread to other computers across a network automatically, without human interaction.

Computer security experts believed that a new variant of Conficker, which surfaced this year, could contact 500 of 50,000 randomly generated domain names April 1 to receive updated copies or other malicious commands.

A domain name is the address of a website that can help connect computers on the Internet. Previous Conficker variants were written to connect to 250 domain names.

The US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Monday released a tool that can detect whether a computer is infected by the worm.

The tool can be used by federal government, commercial vendors, state and local governments, and critical infrastructure owners as well as operators to scan their networks for the Conficker worm, the DHS said in a statement.

A team of researchers from the Honeynet Project, an international non-profit Internet security research organisation, also announced Monday that they have discovered a flaw in Conficker which makes it much easier for users to detect infected computers.

After finding the flaw last Friday, the researchers quickly developed a new scanning tool for detecting Conficker over the weekend and is making it publicly available ahead of the worm’s scheduled activation date.

“What we’ve found is pretty cool: Conficker actually changes what Windows looks like on the network, and this change can be detected remotely, anonymously, and very, very quickly,” Dan Kaminsky, one of the researchers, wrote on his blog.

“You can literally ask a server if it’s infected with Conficker, and it will tell you,” he added.

Meanwhile, in a move to calm the computer users, security experts are playing down the havoc that Conficker may cause.

The worm is going to change its operation a bit, but it is unlikely to cause anything visible April 1, Mikko Hypponen, chief research officer of computer security company F-Secure, said in a posting on the company’s blog.

“Although we don’t think anything will happen on this particular date, Conficker is nothing to laugh about. The gang behind this is serious and we should not underestimate them,” he noted.

“The general public should not be alarmed, but should, as always, exercise caution and implement security best practices into their daily computing routines,” Vincent Weafer, an expert of computer security company Symantec, said in a statement.

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